The story begins in 1968 when the Russian physicist Viktor Veselago publishes a theoretical article dealing with the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a hypothetical environment that at the same time has negative permitivity and permeability. Solving Maxwell’s equations for such environments can be relatively easy to draw some interesting consequences. For example:

The wave vector and the electromagnetic wave intensity (and isotropic) field vectors in this order do not form a right-handed, but left-hand triangle of perpendicular vectors. Therefore, this environment is sometimes also called left-handed or L-environment.

- In the isotropic environment, the phase and group velocity vectors have the opposite direction.
- The Doppler effect works on the contrary – the observer moving towards the source detects a lower frequency, the observer moving away from the source then the frequency is higher.
- The material with negative permitivity and permeability has a negative refractive index.
- The last of the above